Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) is a tropical, medicinal shrub native to Malaya, Thailand, and the northeastern Philippines. Kratom is a common plant across West Kalimantan, particularly in Putussibau, Malaysia. Antioxidants may be one of the several medicinal effects of kratom leaves. Mitragyna speciosa leaf preparations, on the other hand, exhibit antioxidant and antibacterial activity. The focus of this article is on should you use Kratom as an anti-bacteria? And how the ethanolic extracts of the Mitragyna speciosa (Rubiaceae Category) stem affected the bacteria Escherichia coli and Streptococcus pneumococcal.
Kratom as An Anti-Bacterial
Indonesia has a small number of extensive rainforests with a diverse range of plant species. Given the differences in species of the genus in Indonesia, a minor is recognized about their best uses as herbal medicines. Medicinal herbs come in hundreds of different species. It might be documented that there are around 40,000 therapeutic tropical plants globally, with 30.000 of them estimated to be found in Southeast Asia. This figure accounts for 90% of all plant medicines identified in Asia. A quarter of them, or roughly 7.500 types, are recognized to have pharmacological or medicinal characteristics.
On the other hand, only 1.200 medicinal plants have been employed as natural resources for herbal supplements or remedies. Kratom, which is native to the Northern Malay Archipelago, Malaysia, Indochina, and Bali, is one of the therapeutic herbs.
Kratom species are usually used by ingesting, steaming like tea, or inhaling. Kratom is a conventional medical herb that has stimulant (low doses) and tranquil (high doses) properties and constipation, improving the cardiovascular system, increasing strength and endurance, preventing incontinence, diabetic therapy, and lowering blood glucose levels. Herb (Mitragyna speciosa) would be a subtropical medicinal shrub native to Malaysia, Asia, and the Northern and Southern Philippines. It is a common species in West Kalimantan, particularly in Putussibau.
Previous research on kratom plants has revealed pharmacological effects such as analgesic and psychoactive action, antidepressants, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective activity, and medicinal and cosmetic activity. In addition, the antioxidant potential of kratom may be tested on a variety of bacteria, such as the germs that can cause skin issues, Propionibacterium enlarged pores, as well as Streptococcus pyogenes and B. subtilis.
The constitution of kratom stems, especially the high level of natural antioxidants in the ethanolic extracts of kratom leaf surface, cannot be dissociated from its antibacterial properties. Phytochemical investigations have revealed mitragynine, 7-hydroxy mitragynine, speciocilliatine, 5-desmethyl mitragynine, speciogynine, and paynantheine, 17-dimethyl dihydro-mitragynine, have been discovered in Mitragyna speciosa species.
Its antibacterial properties are thought to impact microorganisms that can cause stomach and gastrointestinal tract illnesses. The goal of this review was to see if the ethanolic extracts of the Mitragyna speciosa (Rubiaceae Relatives) stem had any impact on the bacteria Escherichia and Streptococcus pneumonia.
According to research, kratom stems contain a variety of medicinal benefits. In addition, the management of illnesses caused by microbial resistance to antibiotics now necessitates the development of novel compounds with high potential. The substance under investigation was kratom stem extract. Hydrogen was utilized as the solvent system. Phytochemical analysis: alkaloids, flavonoids, performance-enhancing drugs, phenols, polyphenols, and terpenoids are all examined during phytochemical analysis.
As a test microorganism, Aeromonas hydrophila was used as a model. Nutrient Agar was utilised as the medium (NA). Like a bacterial suspension, NaCl 0.9 percent antibacterial extract was investigated using ten (ten) different concentrations: 3 percent, 6 percent, 9 percent, 12 percent, 15 percent, 18 percent, 21 percent, 24 percent, 27 percent, and 30 percent. Wet sorting is used to sort fresh kratom leaves. The processing technique is being used in solvent extraction.
This leaf’s antimicrobial activity test measures the secondary chemicals in kratom’s different extracts and determines the optimal dose to eliminate Aeromonas hydrophilic. Using 62.27 grams of solution, the extraction method yielded a blackish-brown isolate (31.14 percent). Active ingredients like terpenoids, tannins, phenylpropanoids, steroids, and triterpenoids are found in abundance in naturally occurring substances in kratom ethanolic extracts.
The best proportion that showed a large danger zone was 24 percent of the isolate of Aeromonas hydrophila, which seems distinguished by a mortality zone surrounding the paper discs.
What Does the Research Say?
According to several investigations, medicinal plants have been shown to contain peptides, unstructured essential fats, aldehydes, opiates, seed oil, phenols, and liquid or methanol-soluble chemicals. These chemicals are essential in treating viral diseases such as bacteria, fungus, and infections.
Due to the excessive use of industrial antibacterial medications routinely employed to control bacterial illnesses, several drug characteristics in human pathogens have emerged in the last decade. On the other hand, Oxidative stress is recognized to be a prime source of a variety of chronic and neurodegenerative disorders. Combustion is a gradual phenomenon in which organisms produce energy to power their metabolic cycles.
The unrestrained generation of oxygen-derived reactive oxygen species, on the other hand, is linked to the start of many illnesses, including arthritis, hypertension, autoimmune diseases, and malignancy, as well as many chronic conditions associated with ageing. This has driven a never-ending hunt for different vegetable sources with these therapeutic properties. Mitragyna speciosa would be a subtropical plant native to Thailand and the Northern and Southern Philippines.
The young leaves are recognized in Indonesia as Biak and Ketum, and in Southeast Asia as Kratom. Mitragynine might be proposed as a component that might treat adverse drug reactions as a substitute therapy. The foliage has also been recorded to have anticholinergic, anaesthetic, antinociceptive, decongestant, analgesic, and narcotic-like effects.
Unfortunately, there are no studies on the antibacterial and antioxidant activities of M. speciosa that have not been published yet. The antibacterial and antioxidant activities of aqueous leaf extract and chemically different extracts of speciosa leaf are reported in this work. The chemistry of this herb’s foliage, particularly the high concentration of polyphenolic compounds found in ethanolic extracts of kratom foliage, could be separated from its antibacterial activities.
Mitragyna speciosa species produce indole active ingredients like mitragynine, 7-hydroxy mitragynine, 17-dimethyl dihydro-mitragynine, speciogynine, speciocilliatine, and 5-desmethyl mitragynine, and providers can use them to make, as well as bioactive components such as saponin, terpenes, diterpenes, secoiridoids Kratom’s antibacterial properties should affect microorganisms that can cause gastrointestinal and respiratory system illnesses. As a result, the antibacterial action of its leaves on Staphylococcus pneumonia and E. coli germs.
The antibacterial action of Mitragyna speciosa (kratom) ethanolic extracts on pneumococcal bacteria and E. coli is due to quercetin in kratom. This antibacterial mechanism is assumed to be based on the ATP polymerase F0 component 1 (atp1) mechanism, inhibiting ATP production. Quercetin’s broad-spectrum antibacterial capabilities might be employed to treat and develop a variety of pathogenic bacteria, perhaps reducing the need for medications.